Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), sometimes referred to as "hoof and mouth", is a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and other cloven-hooved animals such as pigs, sheep, and goats. FMD is not a public health concern and does not affect food safety. Signs of illness in affected animals include fever, blisters that become ulcers on the mouth, tongue, feet or teats, increased salivation or slobbering in cattle, decreased feed consumption, and lameness.
The last FMD outbreak in the U.S. was in 1929; however, the disease is common in other parts of the world and therefore poses a risk to the U.S. If FMD is diagnosed in the U.S., the control measures would include movement restrictions which will affect over-the-road transport of live animals and animal products (milk, colostrum, semen, embryos).
- APHIS FMD Materials
USDA-APHIS has developed the Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan (or FAD PReP) to raise awareness and to enhance the coordinated response to an animal disease outbreak. Access theFMD Response Plan "The Red Book" September 2014, Guidelines, disinfectant information, and many other resources.
- CFSPH FMD Information
Hosted by the Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH) at Iowa State University, access fact sheets, disease images, a PowerPoint presentation, vaccination guidelines, and many other FMD resources.
- Foot and Mouth Disease Info
Managed by The Beef Checkoff, The Pork Checkoff, Dairy Management Inc., and the American Sheep Institute, this website provides info for consumers, media, and livestock producers about FMD.
- FAD PReP Dairy Industry Manual March 2011
This Manual provides a broad overview of U.S. dairy production methods and the procedures that may be used in the event of a highly contagious FAD outbreak. Livestock producers, their employees, response team members and policy makers are the intended audience.
- Classification of Phases and Types of an FMD Disease Outbreak and Response March 2013
This guideline document is designed to aid rapid decision making to facilitate response planning and development of business continuity plans in the event of an FMD outbreak in the United States or North America.
- Inactivation of FMD Virus in Milk Products May 2012
The U.S. Dairy Export Council funded this literature review conducted by the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University that summarizes the inactivation of FMDV in milk and milk products.
- FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Appendix A: Vaccination for Foot-and-Mouth Disease May 2015
This document describes the disease-specific strategies and general considerations related to the use of vaccine as an aid to control an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the U.S.
- FMD Vaccine Surge Capacity for Emergency Use in the U.S. January 2014
This document reviews the challenges of controlling FMD in the U.S. and provides potential solutions to meet the surge capacity need for FMD vaccine in an extensive outbreak.
- OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, FMD
- OIE World Organization for Animal Health FMD Information
- FMD: Prepare Early, Respond Quickly (article from Bovine Veterinarian)