SMS Plan Components
Biosecurity for Raw Milk Collection and Transport
The SMS Partners, in coordination with the Biosecurity Working Group Members, drafted a document for dairy premises, milk haulers, and processing plants that describes recommended biosecurity performance standards (BPS) to implement in support of rapid permitting for raw milk movement in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States. Compliance with these performance standards is intended to reduce the chance of spreading FMD and increase the chance of timely permitting of raw milk movement from uninfected dairy premises to processing.***Note: The disinfectant section was updated in April 2016.
Biosecurity: Operation-specific Plans
Existing biosecurity plans for dairies may offer protection against endemic diseases but heightened precautions are needed for FMD. Enhanced biosecurity recommendations are outlined in the Self-Assessment Checklist for Enhanced Biosecurity and corresponding Information Manual based on the known exposure routes for FMD. These documents emphasizes three concepts that all dairy operations should be ready to implement in the event of an FMD outbreak in the U.S:
- A Biosecurity Manager,
- A written operation-specific biosecurity plan, and
- A Line of Separation
In addition to meeting the biosecurity performance standards, dairies in an FMD Control Area will need to implement a formalized process for daily herd inspection, or Active Observational Surveillance (AOS). AOS as part of the SMS Plan is "an active process for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease on dairy premises, utilizing trained observers (herd managers or workers) who are routinely monitoring animals on a daily basis for abnormal or increased occurrence of clinical signs compatible with FMD, or changes in food or water consumption, or milk production."
In an FMD outbreak, Responsible Regulatory Officials (local, state, tribal, and federal officials, as appropriate) have the authority and responsibility to establish Control Areas around FMD infected premises and to manage animal and animal product (e.g., milk) movement within, into, and out of the Control Area. The SMS Partners in coordination with the dairy industry, State and Federal Officials, and other interested stakeholders have created guidance documents to facilitate pre-planning and decision making in an event.
Milk Movement from Control Areas in an FMD Outbreak: October 2016
If you are interested in learning more or participating in the discussion of milk or animal movement, contact the Working Group Chairperson.
Risk assessments (RA) support managed movement and permitting of animals and animal products during disease outbreaks. Two risk assessments have been completed that evaluated the risk raw milk transport from an FMD infected, but undetected, Grade A dairy farm to further processing poses to the spread of FMD. The first RA-Baseline identified areas of risk that could result in further spread of FMDv from an infected but undetected dairy premises through transport of raw milk to processing under current industry standards, with no additional mitigations or restrictions in place. The second RA-BPS evaluated the effectiveness of the BPS measures to address and mitigate the risk pathways identified in the Baseline RA. The conclusion was the risk of FMDv contamination of a susceptible farm by contaminated milk and environmental media through the transport of raw milk into, within, and outside of a Control Area to processing is negligible to moderate provided the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) guidance, state regulations, and the proposed Biosecurity Performance Standards are strictly followed. University of Minnesota staff located at the USDA-APHIS-VS Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health completed these proactive risk assessments as one part of the Secure Milk Supply Plan. For more information, please see: