SMS Plan Components
Biosecurity for Raw Milk Collection and Transport
The SMS Partners, in coordination with the Biosecurity Working Group Members, drafted a document for dairy premises, milk haulers, and processing plants that describes recommended biosecurity performance standards to implement in support of rapid permitting for raw milk movement in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States. Compliance with these performance standards is intended to reduce the chance of spreading FMD and increase the chance of timely permitting of raw milk movement from uninfected dairy premises to processing.
Biosecurity for Live Animal Movement
The SMS Partners are drafting Biosecurity Performance Standards for moving live animals, primarily young stock and replacement heifers, during an FMD outbreak. Dairy premises that have their newborn calves raised off-site may not have facilities, personnel, or equipment to care for young stock should a stop movement order be implemented. Likewise, heifer growers may not be able to accommodate possible calving or lactation of heifers that cannot be transported to their home dairy premises. A Working Group is evaluating live animal movement options that ensure animal health and well-being, while minimizing disease spread, considering the continuity of business issues that will arise during an FMD outbreak.
The SMS Partners, in coordination with the Milk Movement Working Group Members, have drafted recommendations related to pre-event planning and coordination that could occur on a state level to support rapid permitting for raw milk movement. Brief descriptions of some of those recommendations are provided here:
- Milk processors should provide evidence their processing procedures meet the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code requirements for inactivating FMD virus in milk and milk products
- Milk products originating from an FMD control area not treated to OIE standards should be recalled
- Milk treated to OIE standards for either human or animal consumption may enter commerce
Recognizing milk movement recommendations may be affected by the scope of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, a document titled: Classification of Phases and Types of an FMD Disease Outbreak and Response was drafted. APHIS and State Animal Health Officials support the concepts and it is serving as a discussion platform for response management.
In addition to meeting the biosecurity performance standards, dairies in an FMD Control Area will need to implement a formalized process for daily herd inspection, or Active Observational Surveillance (AOS). AOS as part of the SMS Plan is "an active process for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease on dairy premises, utilizing trained observers (herd managers or workers) who are routinely monitoring animals on a daily basis for abnormal or increased occurrence of clinical signs compatible with FMD, or changes in food or water consumption, or milk production."
Under the overarching guidance of the Secure Milk Supply (SMS) Plan and the current Biosecurity Performance Standards for the movement of raw milk, a list of actions were recommended for handling milk from FMD virus infected dairy herds that are not depopulated during an extensive FMD outbreak.
If you are interested in learning more or participating in the discussion of milk movement, contact the Working Group Chairpersons.
Risk assessments (RA) support managed movement and permitting of animals and animal products during disease outbreaks. Two risk assessments have been completed that evaluated the risk raw milk transport from an FMD infected, but undetected, Grade A dairy farm to further processing poses to the spread of FMD. The first (Baseline RA) identified areas of risk that could result in further spread of FMDv from an infected but undetected dairy premises through transport of raw milk to processing under current industry standards, with no additional mitigations or restrictions in place. The second (RA-BPS) evaluated the effectiveness of the BPS measures to address and mitigate the risk pathways identified in the Baseline RA. The conclusion was the risk of FMDv contamination of a susceptible farm by contaminated milk and environmental media through the transport of raw milk into, within, and outside of a Control Area to processing is negligible to moderate provided the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) guidance, state regulations, and the proposed Biosecurity Performance Standards are strictly followed. University of Minnesota staff located at the USDA-APHIS-VS Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health completed these proactive risk assessments as one part of the Secure Milk Supply Plan. For more information, please see: